Google Smart Calculator

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Want to add up a list of numbers, convert from miles to kilometers, or evaluate some other mathematical expression? Instead of using a piece of paper, your calculator, or a computer math software program, you can now solve mathematical problems with this AJAX JavaScript tool powered by Google's built-in calculator function.

The calculator can evaluate mathematical expressions involving Basic Arithmetic, Advanced Math, Units of Measure and Conversions, and Physical Constants. Let’s see details about each of these.

1. Basic Arithmetic

Compute expressions containing standard mathematical symbols. The following table lists operators that come between the two numbers on which they operate, e.g., to multiply 2 times 3, use 2 * 3.

+Addition[ 11.81 + 12.14 + 14.23 ]
-Subtraction[ 68 - 11 - 21 ]
*Multiplication[ 5 * 6 * 7 ]
/Division[ 432 / 5 ]
^ or **Exponentiation (raise to a power of)[ 3^4 ] or [ 3**4 ]
% ofPercent[ 12% of 85.12 ]
mod or %modulo (the remainder after division)[ 17 mod 6 ] or [ 17 % 6 ]
the nth root ofcalculates the nth root[ 4th root of 16 ]; [ cube root of 109 ]; [ square root of 42 ] or [ sqrt(42) ]

Note: To do multiplication, you must include the * symbol; [ 3 * 4 ] will be calculated, 3 4 won’t.

2. Advanced Math

Compute results involving mathematical constants, such as e, pi, i (the square root of -1), and mathematical functions. The following table lists just some of the functions built into Google’s calculator.

sin, cos, tan, sec, csc, cot, etc.Trigonometric functions (arguments are assumed to be in radians)[ cos(pi/5) ]; [ cosine(pi/5) ]
arcsin, arccos, arctan, arccsc, etc.Inverse trigonometric functions[ arccos(.3) ]
sinh, cosh, tanh, csch, arsinh, arccsch, etc.Hyperbolic functions[ cosh(5) ]
lnLogarithm base e[ ln(17) ]
logLogarithm base 10[ log(17) ]
lgLogarithm base 2[ lg(17) ]
expExponential function[ exp(17) ]
!Factorial[ 7! ]
choosex choose y calculates the number of ways of choosing a set of y elements from a set of x distinct elements[ 7 choose 4 ]

The following table lists just a few of the commonly used mathematical constants known to the calculator function.

Name and descriptionExample
base of the natural system of logarithms[ e ]
pi, the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle[ pi/7 ]
imaginary number, i, which represents one of the two square roots of -1[ i^2 ]
Euler’s constant, gamma[ e^gamma ]

3. Units of Measure and Conversions

Compute expressions involving different units. By default, units are converted to and results expressed in meter-kilogram-second (mks) units. Many units have both long and short names. Use whichever name you prefer.

Type of UnitsExamples
CurrencyAustralian Dollars (AUD), British pounds (GBP), Euros, US Dollars (USD)
Masskilogram or kg, grams or g, grains, pounds or lbs, carats, stones, tons, tonnes
Lengthmeters or m, miles, feet, Angstroms, cubits, furlongs
Volumegallons, liters or l, bushels, teaspoons, pints
Areasquare kilometers, acres, hectares
Timedays, seconds or s, centuries, sidereal years, fortnights
Electricityvolts, amps, ohms, henrys
EnergyCalories, British thermal units (BTU), joules, ergs, foot-pounds
Powerwatt, kilowatts, horsepower or hp
Informationbits, bytes, kbytes, etc.
Quantitydozen, baker’s dozen, percent, gross, great gross, score, googol
Numbering systemsdecimal, hexadecimal or hex, octal, binary, roman numerals, etc. Prefix hexadecimal numbers with 0x, octal numbers with 0o and binary numbers with 0b. For example: 0×7f + 0b10010101.

Here are calculations that involve units.

Convert from one set of units to another by using the notation, x units in y units.

Warning: When your query includes "e;Calories"e; with a capital "e;C,"e; Google returns kilocalories called "e;calories"e; by nutritionists.

Convert from one numbering system to another.

In many cases, you can also get the conversion factor between units:

4. Physical Constants

Note: Sometimes Google’s calculator interprets lower case letters different from upper case letters.

Long NameShorthand NotationClick the Link for the Approximate Value
atomic mass unitsamu[ amu ] or [ atomic mass unit ]
Astronomical Unitau[ au ] or [ astronomical unit ]
Avogadro’s number[ N_A ] or [ Avogadro’s number ]
Boltzmann constantk[ k ] or [ Boltzmann constant ]
electric constant, permitivity of free space[ epsilon_0 ]
electron mass[ m_e ] or [ electron mass ]
electron volteV[ eV ] or [ electron volt ]
elementary charge[ elementary charge ]
Euler’s constant[ Euler’s constant ]
Faraday constant[ Faraday constant ]
fine-structure constant[ fine-structure constant ]
gravitational constantG[ G ] or [ gravitational constant ]
magnetic flux quantum[ magnetic flux quantum ]
mass of each planet and of the sun[ m_mars ], [ m_earth ], [ m_uranus ], …, [ m_sun ]
molar gas constant[ molar gas constant ]
permeability of free space[ permeability of free space ]
Planck’s constanth[ h ] or [ Planck’s constant ]
proton mass[ m_p ] or [ proton mass ]
radius of each planet and of the sun[ r_earth ], [ r_pluto ], …, [ r_sun ]
Rydberg constant[ Rydberg constant ]
speed of light in a vacuumc[ c ] or [ speed of light ]
speed of sound in air at sea level[ speed of sound ]
Stefan-Boltzmann constant[ Stefan-Boltzmann constant ]

Here are some calculations using built-in constants.

5. Using Parentheses

Parentheses (( )) can be used whenever they’ll serve to make complicated expressions unambiguous, and also sets of parentheses can be used within parentheses. Don’t use brackets ([ ]) for grouping.

The following are tips from Google’s online help for the calculator, which can be found on the web at

You can force the calculator to try to evaluate an expression by putting an equals sign (=) after it. This works only if the expression is arithmetically computable. For example, 1-800-555-1234= (a US phone number followed by an equals sign) will return a result, but 1/0= will not.
Parentheses can be used to enclose the parts of your expression that you want evaluated first. For example, (1+2)*3 causes the addition to happen before the multiplication.

Feel free to experiment with the calculator as not all of its capabilities are listed here.