Reviews of Modern Physics

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  • Quantum sensing
    Author(s): C. L. Degen, F. Reinhard, and P. CappellaroQuantum technologies are increasingly driving the field of precision metrology. While current techniques for sensing and recording time rely on cl …
  • Strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
    Author(s): Edward ShuryakThe field of relativistic heavy ion collisions spans over five decades ranging from the formulation of scientific goals and early experiments at Berkeley in the 1960s with mos …
  • Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at transition metal/oxide interfaces and applications
    Author(s): B. Dieny and M. ChshievIn spintronics devices, magnetic materials are used as polarizers or analyzers for electron spin. Magnetic anisotropy defines the orientation for magnetization and po …
  • Frontiers of chaotic advection
    Author(s): Hassan Aref, John R. Blake, Marko Budišić, Silvana S. S. Cardoso, Julyan H. E. Cartwright, Herman J. H. Clercx, Kamal El Omari, Ulrike Feudel, Ramin Golestanian, Emmanuelle Gouillart, GertJ …
  • Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism
    Author(s): Frances Hellman et al.Magnetism at interfaces often takes on a fundamentally completely different character when compared to magnetism in bulk. This review focuses on these differences and …
  • Quantum Hall physics: Hierarchies and conformal field theory techniques
    Author(s): T. H. Hansson, M. Hermanns, S. H. Simon, and S. F. ViefersThe quantum Hall effects by now are recognized as prime examples of the importance of topological considerations in condensed-matte …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Dibyendu Roy, C. M. Wilson, and Ofer FirstenbergPhotons, the particles of light, are in most conditions very weakly interacting. Nevertheless, it is possible to make them interact by alteri …
  • Graviton mass bounds
    Author(s): Claudia de Rham, J. Tate Deskins, Andrew J. Tolley, and Shuang-Yong ZhouIf gravitation propagates via a massive field, the velocity of gravitational waves (gravitons) depends on their frequ …
  • Quantum spin liquid states
    Author(s): Yi Zhou, Kazushi Kanoda, and Tai-Kai NgThe concept of a quantum spin liquid is important for problems ranging from quantum spin chains to high-temperature superconductivity. This review giv …
  • Experimental soft-matter science
    Author(s): Sidney R. NagelSoft condensed matter refers to materials where the constituent building blocks are larger than atoms but smaller than the system itself. The large size of the constituent pa …
  • Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation
    Author(s): Cosimo BambiCan one determine the black hole nature of an observed object by electromagnetic observations? As astrophysical black holes are expected to result from collapse with nonzero ang …
  • Erratum: Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy [Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 543 (2011)]
    Author(s): Ronald Ulbricht, Euan Hendry, Jie Shan, Tony F. Heinz, and Mischa Bonn[Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 029901] Published Thu Apr 06, 2017
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): André EckardtDynamics of quantum many-body systems is one of the most complex problems in physics since it involves the time evolution of a large number of particles that interact with each …
  • Equations of state for supernovae and compact stars
    Author(s): M. Oertel, M. Hempel, T. Klähn, and S. TypelWhat are the thermodynamic properties of matter at extreme densities, even exceeding nuclear matter density severely? How can we describe the com …
  • Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond
    Author(s): Nikolay V. Vitanov, Andon A. Rangelov, Bruce W. Shore, and Klaas BergmannBy use of a pulse sequence, the technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage transfers population without loss be …
  • Light fields in complex media: Mesoscopic scattering meets wave control
    Author(s): Stefan Rotter and Sylvain GiganWave front shaping, the ability to manipulate light fields both spatially and temporally, in complex media is an emerging field with many applications. This r …
  • Quantum random number generators
    Author(s): Miguel Herrero-Collantes and Juan Carlos Garcia-EscartinIn mathematics and computer science, random numbers have the role of a resource for assisting proofs, making cryptography secure, and …
  • Electron-phonon interactions from first principles
    Author(s): Feliciano GiustinoThe electron-phonon interaction in solids is important for many interesting properties of solids, among them the critical temperature of phonon-mediated superconductors, t …
  • Entropic uncertainty relations and their applications
    Author(s): Patrick J. Coles, Mario Berta, Marco Tomamichel, and Stephanie WehnerThe Heisenberg uncertainty principle has a more precise formulation in terms of inequalities involving quantum entropies …
  • Editorial: From the APS Editor in Chief
    Author(s): Pierre Meystre[Rev. Mod. Phys. 89, 010001] Published Fri Feb 03, 2017
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): T. J. Davis and D. E. GómezLocalized surface plasmons are collective modes of the conduction electrons excited by light in metal nanoparticles. Although plasmons have been known for some ti …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Akihiro Tohsaki, Hisashi Horiuchi, Peter Schuck, and Gerd RöpkeIn 1954, Fred Hoyle made a prediction regarding the existence of a resonant state of carbon-12 that would be associated with a …
  • Dynamics of non-Markovian open quantum systems
    Author(s): Inés de Vega and Daniel AlonsoThis review gives a summary of the many techniques that are used in the analysis of open quantum systems. Emphasis is on those cases where it is unsuitable to …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): John SchliemannSpintronics continues to be a field of fast evolution where new concepts and devices are continuously being developed. One of the limiting factors in spintronics is the decoh …
  • Nonlinear optical signals and spectroscopy with quantum light
    Author(s): Konstantin E. Dorfman, Frank Schlawin, and Shaul MukamelBy variation of the photon statistics and the entanglement between time and frequency components, quantum states of light feature spe …
  • Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections
    Author(s): M. Demarteau, R. Lipton, H. Nicholson, and I. ShipseyProgress in the physical sciences depends as much on innovations in instrumentation that enable more refined experiments as on new theor …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): M. R. NormanQuantum spin liquids form a novel class of matter where, despite the existence of strong exchange interactions, spins do not order down to the lowest measured temperature. Typic …
  • Active particles in complex and crowded environments
    Author(s): Clemens Bechinger, Roberto Di Leonardo, Hartmut Löwen, Charles Reichhardt, Giorgio Volpe, and Giovanni VolpeThis article reviews both experimental and theoretical advances in the field of a …
  • Quantum memories at finite temperature
    Author(s): Benjamin J. Brown, Daniel Loss, Jiannis K. Pachos, Chris N. Self, and James R. WoottonWhile the typical scenario for quantum error correction involves active intervention there are advantag …
  • Time-dependent density-functional description of nuclear dynamics
    Author(s): Takashi Nakatsukasa, Kenichi Matsuyanagi, Masayuki Matsuo, and Kazuhiro YabanaMany excitation modes of atomic nuclei and their reactions can be described as time-dependent processes, in whi …
  • Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions
    Author(s): L. M. Woods, D. A. R. Dalvit, A. Tkatchenko, P. Rodriguez-Lopez, A. W. Rodriguez, and R. PodgornikElectromagnetic fluctuation-induced interactions known as van der Waals, Casimir, and Casim …
  • CP
    Author(s): Marina Artuso, Guennadi Borissov, and Alexander LenzSources of CP violation beyond those of the standard model of particle physics are needed to explain the dominance of matter over antimat …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Dieter Suter and Gonzalo A. ÁlvarezQuantum-mechanical systems retain their properties so long as the phase of quantum superpositions evolve stably over time. Contact with an environment can …
  • Alternatives to an elementary Higgs
    Author(s): Csaba Csáki, Christophe Grojean, and John TerningExperiments point to the Higgs particle being the excitation of an elementary scalar field, as originally proposed in the standard model. To …
  • CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 2014
    Author(s): Peter J. Mohr, David B. Newell, and Barry N. TaylorThis review article contains the 2014 self-consistent set of values of the constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recom …
  • Leptonic and semileptonic decays of B mesons
    Author(s): Jochen Dingfelder and Thomas MannelIn the standard model of particle physics, the strong and weak interaction eigenstates of the three generations of quarks differ and are related by the un …
  • Publisher’s Note: Google matrix analysis of directed networks [Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 1261 (2015)]
    Author(s): Leonardo Ermann, Klaus M. Frahm, and Dima L. Shepelyansky[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039905] Published Tue Sep 20, 2016
  • Sap flow and sugar transport in plants
    Author(s): K. H. Jensen, K. Berg-Sørensen, H. Bruus, N. M. Holbrook, J. Liesche, A. Schulz, M. A. Zwieniecki, and T. BohrGreen plants harvest the energy of the Sun in the leaves by converting light en …
  • Control principles of complex systems
    Author(s): Yang-Yu Liu and Albert-László BarabásiComplex networks range from subcellular biological networks to the Internet. Our ability to control these systems deeply challenges our understanding. …
  • Classification of topological quantum matter with symmetries
    Author(s): Ching-Kai Chiu, Jeffrey C. Y. Teo, Andreas P. Schnyder, and Shinsei RyuIn recent years an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to quantum materials with topological characteristi …
  • Strangeness in nuclear physics
    Author(s): A. Gal, E. V. Hungerford, and D. J. MillenerEveryday matter is made of the lightest up and down quarks. The strange quark is the third lightest of all quarks. Strangeness, a property of par …
  • Erratum: Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order [Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2731 (2010)]
    Author(s): Andrei Kirilyuk, Alexey V. Kimel, and Theo Rasing[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039904] Published Thu Aug 11, 2016
  • Statistical mechanics of ecological systems: Neutral theory and beyond
    Author(s): Sandro Azaele, Samir Suweis, Jacopo Grilli, Igor Volkov, Jayanth R. Banavar, and Amos MaritanIt is of societal importance to advance the understanding of emerging patterns of biodiversity f …
  • Nonlinear waves in PT-symmetric systems
    Author(s): Vladimir V. Konotop, Jianke Yang, and Dmitry A. ZezyulinThe concept of parity-time symmetric systems is rooted in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics where complex potentials obeying this symme …
  • Erratum: Hidden variables and the two theorems of John Bell [Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 803 (1993)]
    Author(s): N. David Mermin[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039902] Published Fri Jul 15, 2016
  • Erratum: Modeling semiflexible polymer networks [Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 995 (2014)]
    Author(s): C. P. Broedersz and F. C. MacKintosh[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039903] Published Fri Jul 15, 2016
  • Fermion path integrals and topological phases
    Author(s): Edward WittenSymmetry-protected phases of matter have been at the forefront of condensed matter physics in recent years. Bosonic symmetry-protected phases have been interpreted in terms of …
  • Publisher’s Note: Metallic quantum ferromagnets [Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 25006 (2016)]
    Author(s): M. Brando, D. Belitz, F. M. Grosche, and T. R. Kirkpatrick[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039901] Published Mon Jul 11, 2016
  • Nobel Lecture: Discovery of atmospheric neutrino oscillations
    Author(s): Takaaki KajitaThe 2015 Nobel Prize for Physics was shared by Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald. These papers are the text of the address given in conjunction with the award.[Rev. Mod. P ...
  • Nobel Lecture: The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory: Observation of flavor change for solar neutrinos
    Author(s): Arthur B. McDonaldThe 2015 Nobel Prize for Physics was shared by Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald. These papers are the text of the address given in conjunction with the award.[Rev. Mo ...
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): A. Bansil, Hsin Lin, and Tanmoy DasFirst-principles band theory, properly augmented by topological considerations, has provided a remarkably successful framework for predicting new classes ...
  • Metallic quantum ferromagnets
    Author(s): M. Brando, D. Belitz, F. M. Grosche, and T. R. KirkpatrickA full understanding of long range ferromagnetic order in metallic systems reflects a variety of phenomena which are best understoo ...
  • Physical properties of low-dimensional sp^{2}-based carbon nanostructures
    Author(s): V. Meunier, A. G. Souza Filho, E. B. Barros, and M. S. DresselhausThis review focuses on the fundamental physical properties of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures (graphene, graphene nan ...
  • Scaled plane-wave Born cross sections for atoms and molecules
    Author(s): H. Tanaka, M. J. Brunger, L. Campbell, H. Kato, M. Hoshino, and A. R. P. RauElectron-atom and electron-molecule collisional cross sections are needed in the modeling and understanding of ph ...
  • Coulomb drag
    Author(s): B. N. Narozhny and A. LevchenkoCoulomb drag, a term coined in analogy to phonon drag, refers to the effect of mutual friction between nonequilibrium conduction electrons belonging to two el ...
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): W. Ubachs, J. Bagdonaite, E. J. Salumbides, M. T. Murphy, and L. KaperLooking back into 10-12 billion years of cosmic history this Colloquium paper summarizes what is presently known about ...
  • The physics of epigenetics
    Author(s): Ruggero Cortini, Maria Barbi, Bertrand R. Caré, Christophe Lavelle, Annick Lesne, Julien Mozziconacci, and Jean-Marc VictorEpigenetics is essential in understanding the development, from a ...
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Heinz-Peter Breuer, Elsi-Mari Laine, Jyrki Piilo, and Bassano VacchiniAn ongoing theme in quantum physics is the interaction of small quantum systems with an environment. If that environmen ...
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Anna L. Watts, Nils Andersson, Deepto Chakrabarty, Marco Feroci, Kai Hebeler, Gianluca Israel, Frederick K. Lamb, M. Coleman Miller, Sharon Morsink, Feryal Özel, Alessandro Patruno, Juri Po ...
  • Phase diagram of QCD in a magnetic field
    Author(s): Jens O. Andersen, William R. Naylor, and Anders TranbergThis review addresses the current theoretical understanding of hadronic matter at large magnetic fields. Applications include heavy-i ...
  • Physics of Alfvén waves and energetic particles in burning plasmas
    Author(s): Liu Chen and Fulvio ZoncaIn magnetic fusion reactors relying on the burning of deuterium and tritium, sufficient confinement of the alpha particles produced in the nuclear reactions is cruc ...
  • The physics of x-ray free-electron lasers
    Author(s): C. Pellegrini, A. Marinelli, and S. ReicheThe advent of x-ray free electron lasers has made possible the study of matter at the characteristic space and time scales of atomic and molecular ...
  • Linac Coherent Light Source: The first five years
    Author(s): Christoph Bostedt, Sébastien Boutet, David M. Fritz, Zhirong Huang, Hae Ja Lee, Henrik T. Lemke, Aymeric Robert, William F. Schlotter, Joshua J. Turner, and Garth J. WilliamsIn the five yea ...
  • Delayed-choice gedanken experiments and their realizations
    Author(s): Xiao-song Ma, Johannes Kofler, and Anton ZeilingerWave-particle duality lies at the root of quantum mechanics and is central in the description of interferences observed with elementary obj ...
  • Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status
    Author(s): Richard H. Cyburt, Brian D. Fields, Keith A. Olive, and Tsung-Han YehHow do we understand the production of the lightest nuclides from H to Li during the first seconds of cosmic time? This ...
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Katrin Amann-Winkel, Roland Böhmer, Franz Fujara, Catalin Gainaru, Burkhard Geil, and Thomas LoertingBesides being fundamental for life on Earth, water is one of the complex materials in na ...
  • Experimental tests of particle flow calorimetry
    Author(s): Felix Sefkow, Andy White, Kiyotomo Kawagoe, Roman Pöschl, and José RepondMethods of measuring the energies of jets have relied on detection of photons, charged hadrons, and neutral hadrons ...
  • Jerusalem lectures on black holes and quantum information
    Author(s): D. HarlowThe quantum mechanics of black holes, and particularly the information paradox, have been a crucial arena for testing theories of quantum gravity. This review covers the quantum ph ...
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov, Farhat Beg, and Andrew NgPhysical phenomena at the nanoscale can be considerably different from the behavior in the macroscopic world. This rule is also true for plas ...
  • Lattice tests of beyond standard model dynamics
    Author(s): Thomas DeGrandOriginally developed for quantum chromodynamics at strong coupling, lattice approximations provide an essential tool applicable to any strongly coupled gauge theory. The resol ...
  • Symmetry violations in nuclear and neutron β decay
    Author(s): K. K. Vos, H. W. Wilschut, and R. G. E. TimmermansExperimental searches for new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics are not constrained to the high energy sector alone. Th ...
  • Ion-trap measurements of electric-field noise near surfaces
    Author(s): M. Brownnutt, M. Kumph, P. Rabl, and R. BlattHow can the electric noise in the vicinity of a metallic body be measured and understood? Trapped ions, known as unique tools for metrology and ...
  • Cavity-based quantum networks with single atoms and optical photons
    Author(s): Andreas Reiserer and Gerhard RempeA vision has formed in recent years of the components necessary for a large-scale quantum network. Single trapped atoms can serve as the nodes of this netw ...
  • Spinodal nanodecomposition in semiconductors doped with transition metals
    Author(s): T. Dietl, K. Sato, T. Fukushima, A. Bonanni, M. Jamet, A. Barski, S. Kuroda, M. Tanaka, Pham Nam Hai, and H. Katayama-YoshidaThe occurrence of high-temperature ferromagnetism in transition ...
  • Google matrix analysis of directed networks
    Author(s): Leonardo Ermann, Klaus M. Frahm, and Dima L. ShepelyanskyHow can information from communication and social networks in modern societies be processed, classified, and retrieved? For this new ...
  • Spin Hall effects
    Author(s): Jairo Sinova, Sergio O. Valenzuela, J. Wunderlich, C. H. Back, and T. JungwirthIn solid-state materials with strong relativistic spin-orbit coupling, charge currents generate transverse spi ...
  • Nobel Lecture: Single molecules, cells, and super-resolution optics
    Author(s): Eric BetzigThe 2014 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was shared by Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, and William E. Moerner. These papers are the text of the address given in conjunction with the award ...
  • Nobel Lecture: Nanoscopy with freely propagating light
    Author(s): Stefan W. HellThe 2014 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was shared by Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, and William E. Moerner. These papers are the text of the address given in conjunction with the aw ...
  • Nobel Lecture: Single-molecule spectroscopy, imaging, and photocontrol: Foundations for super-resolution microscopy
    Author(s): W. E. (William E.) MoernerThe 2014 Nobel Prize for Chemistry was shared by Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, and William E. Moerner. These papers are the text of the address given in conjunction ...
  • Nobel Lecture: Fascinated journeys into blue light
    Author(s): Isamu Akasaki[Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 1119] Published Mon Oct 05, 2015
  • Nobel Lecture: Growth of GaN on sapphire via low-temperature deposited buffer layer and realization of p-type GaN by Mg doping followed by low-energy electron beam irradiation
    Author(s): Hiroshi AmanoThis is a personal history of one of the Japanese researchers engaged in developing a method for growing GaN on a sapphire substrate, paving the way for the realization of smar …
  • Nobel Lecture: Background story of the invention of efficient blue InGaN light emitting diodes
    Author(s): Shuji Nakamura[Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 1139] Published Mon Oct 05, 2015
  • Quantum Monte Carlo methods for nuclear physics
    Author(s): J. Carlson, S. Gandolfi, F. Pederiva, Steven C. Pieper, R. Schiavilla, K. E. Schmidt, and R. B. WiringaQuantum Monte Carlo techniques aim at providing a description of complex quantum syste …
  • Random-matrix theory of Majorana fermions and topological superconductors
    Author(s): C. W. J. BeenakkerRandom-matrix theory has a long history of applications, from nuclear physics to electron localization to quantum dots. This review discusses yet another application of th …
  • Epidemic processes in complex networks
    Author(s): Romualdo Pastor-Satorras, Claudio Castellano, Piet Van Mieghem, and Alessandro VespignaniComplex networks arise in a wide range of biological and sociotechnical systems. Epidemic spreading …
  • Surface nanobubbles and nanodroplets
    Author(s): Detlef Lohse and Xuehua Zhang (张雪花)Surface nanobubbles are nanoscopic gaseous domains on immersed substrates which can survive for days. They were first speculated to exist about 20 years a …
  • Density functional theory: Its origins, rise to prominence, and future
    Author(s): R. O. JonesDensity functional theory has been spectacularly successful in physics, chemistry, and related fields, and it keeps finding new applications. This paper gives an overview of the …
  • Antiferromagnetic order and spin dynamics in iron-based superconductors
    Author(s): Pengcheng DaiIn contrast to conventional BCS superconductors, the observation that superconductivity in unconventional high-temperature materials appears in close proximity to a static anti …
  • Anderson’s considerations on the flow of superfluid helium: Some offshoots
    Author(s): Eric VaroquauxThe aim of this review, based on Anderson’s ideas on phase slippage in superfluid helium, is to convey a physical meaning to the superfluid order parameter and its phase. This …
  • Attosecond chronoscopy of photoemission
    Author(s): Renate Pazourek, Stefan Nagele, and Joachim BurgdörferRecent advances in ultrafast laser spectroscopy have made it possible to study the electron dynamics for physical and chemical processe …
  • Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes
    Author(s): Edward A. Laird, Ferdinand Kuemmeth, Gary A. Steele, Kasper Grove-Rasmussen, Jesper Nygård, Karsten Flensberg, and Leo P. KouwenhovenCarbon nanotubes with multifunctional capabilities are p …
  • Optical atomic clocks
    Author(s): Andrew D. Ludlow, Martin M. Boyd, Jun Ye, E. Peik, and P. O. SchmidtSince 1967 the primary time standard is the cesium atomic clock, based on a hyperfine transition in the microwave domain. …
  • Macroscopic fluctuation theory
    Author(s): Lorenzo Bertini, Alberto De Sole, Davide Gabrielli, Giovanni Jona-Lasinio, and Claudio LandimThe statistical mechanics of systems out of equilibrium provides a formidable challenge. This re …
  • Neutrino electromagnetic interactions: A window to new physics
    Author(s): Carlo Giunti and Alexander StudenikinWith the observation of neutrino masses and mixings, the study of their electromagnetic interactions has assumed greater relevance both as verification …
  • Lévy walks
    Author(s): V. Zaburdaev, S. Denisov, and J. KlafterLévy walks are random walks in which the distribution of step length does not decay exponentially and the velocity of the moving particle is finite. …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Eduardo Fradkin, Steven A. Kivelson, and John M. TranquadaUnderstanding high temperature superconductors is a central problem in condensed matter physics. Many experiments have uncovered or …
  • Asymmetries in top quark pair production at hadron colliders
    Author(s): J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra, D. Amidei, A. Juste, and M. Pérez-VictoriaSeveral years ago measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider showed top quarks to be produced prefera …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Gregory M. GrasonThis Colloquium presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing nontrivial …
  • Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures
    Author(s): Peter Lodahl, Sahand Mahmoodian, and Søren StobbeQuantum dots embedded in photonics nanostructures provide unprecedented control over the interaction between light and matter. This review g …
  • Quantum error correction for quantum memories
    Author(s): Barbara M. TerhalIt may seem inevitable that highly entangled quantum states are susceptible to disturbance through interaction with a decohering environment. However, certain multiqubit en …