Reviews of Modern Physics

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  • Asymmetries in top quark pair production at hadron colliders
    Author(s): J. A. Aguilar-Saavedra, D. Amidei, A. Juste, and M. Pérez-VictoriaSeveral years ago measurements at the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton collider showed top quarks to be produced prefera …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Gregory M. GrasonThis Colloquium presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing nontrivial …
  • Interfacing single photons and single quantum dots with photonic nanostructures
    Author(s): Peter Lodahl, Sahand Mahmoodian, and Søren StobbeQuantum dots embedded in photonics nanostructures provide unprecedented control over the interaction between light and matter. This review g …
  • Quantum error correction for quantum memories
    Author(s): Barbara M. TerhalIt may seem inevitable that highly entangled quantum states are susceptible to disturbance through interaction with a decohering environment. However, certain multiqubit en …
  • Plasma and trap-based techniques for science with positrons
    Author(s): J. R. Danielson, D. H. E. Dubin, R. G. Greaves, and C. M. SurkoIn recent years, there has been a wealth of new science involving low-energy antimatter (i.e., positrons and antiprotons) at e …
  • Baryon resonances in large N_{c} QCD
    Author(s): N. Matagne and Fl. StancuThe current status and open challenges of large N_{c} QCD baryon spectroscopy are reviewed. After introducing the 1/N_{c} expansion method, the latest achievements …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): T. R. Kirkpatrick and D. ThirumalaiThe routine transformation of a liquid, as it is rapidly cooled, resulting in glass formation, is remarkably complex. A theoretical explanation of the dyn …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): J. Bernabéu and F. Martínez-VidalSymmetry transformations have been proven a bedrock tool for understanding the nature of particle interactions, formulating, and testing fundamental theorie …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Steven R. Elliott and Marcel FranzEttore Majorana (1906–1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Simon Maher, Fred P. M. Jjunju, and Stephen TaylorMass spectrometry (MS) is widely regarded as the most sensitive and specific general purpose analytical technique. More than a century has …
  • Dielectric microcavities: Model systems for wave chaos and non-Hermitian physics
    Author(s): Hui Cao and Jan WiersigThis is a review on theoretical and experimental studies on dielectric microcavities, which play a significant role in fundamental and applied research. The basic con …
  • Compass models: Theory and physical motivations
    Author(s): Zohar Nussinov and Jeroen van den BrinkCompass models are theories of matter in which the couplings between the internal spin (or other relevant field) components are inherently spatially ( …
  • Erratum: Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets [Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 563 (2014)]
    Author(s): Vivien Zapf, Marcelo Jaime, and C. D. Batista[Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1453] Published Wed Dec 31, 2014
  • Cavity optomechanics
    Author(s): Markus Aspelmeyer, Tobias J. Kippenberg, and Florian MarquardtThe field of cavity optomechanics is reviewed. This field explores the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and nanome …
  • Dielectric laser accelerators
    Author(s): R. Joel England et al.The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing inter …
  • Hidden symmetries of dynamics in classical and quantum physics
    Author(s): Marco CarigliaThis article reviews the role of hidden symmetries of dynamics in the study of physical systems, from the basic concepts of symmetries in phase space to the forefront of curre …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Paul Busch, Pekka Lahti, and Reinhard F. WernerRecent years have witnessed a controversy over Heisenberg’s famous error-disturbance relation. Here the conflict is resolved by way of an anal …
  • Quantum channels and memory effects
    Author(s): Filippo Caruso, Vittorio Giovannetti, Cosmo Lupo, and Stefano ManciniAny physical process can be represented as a quantum channel mapping an initial state to a final state. Hence it can be …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Jak Chakhalian, John W. Freeland, Andrew J. Millis, Christos Panagopoulos, and James M. RondinelliFinding new collective electronic states in materials is one of the fundamental goals of co …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Bruce J. WestThe fractional calculus has been part of the mathematics and science literature for 310 years. However, it is only in the past decade or so that it has drawn the attention of m …
  • Editorial: PRX Takes on a New Role
    Author(s): Gene D. Sprouse[Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1187] Published Thu Oct 09, 2014
  • Spin-polarized quantum confinement in nanostructures: Scanning tunneling microscopy
    Author(s): Hirofumi Oka, Oleg O. Brovko, Marco Corbetta, Valeri S. Stepanyuk, Dirk Sander, and Jürgen KirschnerExperimental investigations of spin-polarized electron confinement in nanostructures by s …
  • Erratum: Nonequilibrium fluctuations, fluctuation theorems, and counting statistics in quantum systems [Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1665 (2009)]
    Author(s): Massimiliano Esposito, Upendra Harbola, and Shaul Mukamel[Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1125] Published Mon Sep 22, 2014
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Mikhail Lapine, Ilya V. Shadrivov, and Yuri S. KivsharThis Colloquium presents an overview of the research on nonlinear electromagnetic metamaterials. The developed theoretical approaches a …
  • The hadronic final state at HERA
    Author(s): Paul R. Newman and Matthew WingThe hadronic final state in electron-proton collisions at HERA has provided a rich testing ground for development of the theory of the strong force, QCD. In t …
  • Modeling semiflexible polymer networks
    Author(s): C. P. Broedersz and F. C. MacKintoshThis is an overview of theoretical approaches to semiflexible polymers and their networks. Such semiflexible polymers have large bending rigidities that …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): D. N. Basov, M. M. Fogler, A. Lanzara, Feng Wang, and Yuanbo Zhang (张远波)Spectroscopic studies of electronic phenomena in graphene are reviewed. A variety of methods and techniques are surve …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Daniel I. GoldmanBiological locomotion, movement within environments through self-deformation, encompasses a range of time and length scales in an organism. These include the electrophysiol …
  • Beam by design: Laser manipulation of electrons in modern accelerators
    Author(s): Erik Hemsing, Gennady Stupakov, Dao Xiang, and Alexander ZholentsAccelerator-based light sources such as storage rings and free-electron lasers use relativistic electron beams to produce in …
  • Spin-dependent phenomena and device concepts explored in (Ga,Mn)As
    Author(s): T. Jungwirth, J. Wunderlich, V. Novák, K. Olejník, B. L. Gallagher, R. P. Campion, K. W. Edmonds, A. W. Rushforth, A. J. Ferguson, and P. NěmecOver the past two decades, the research of (Ga …
  • Nobel Lecture: The BEH mechanism and its scalar boson
    Author(s): François Englert[Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 843] Published Thu Jul 03, 2014
  • Nobel Lecture: Evading the Goldstone theorem
    Author(s): Peter W. Higgs[Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 851] Published Thu Jul 03, 2014
  • Publisher’s Note: Bell nonlocality [Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 419 (2014)]
    Author(s): Nicolas Brunner, Daniel Cavalcanti, Stefano Pironio, Valerio Scarani, and Stephanie Wehner[Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 839] Published Mon Jun 30, 2014
  • Publisher’s Note: Phonon-glass electron-crystal thermoelectric clathrates: Experiments and theory [Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 669 (2014)]
    Author(s): Toshiro Takabatake, Koichiro Suekuni, Tsuneyoshi Nakayama, and Eiji Kaneshita[Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 841] Published Mon Jun 30, 2014
  • Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory and its applications
    Author(s): Hideo Aoki, Naoto Tsuji, Martin Eckstein, Marcus Kollar, Takashi Oka, and Philipp WernerThe study of nonequilibrium phenomena in correlated lattice systems has developed into one of the mos …
  • Phonon-glass electron-crystal thermoelectric clathrates: Experiments and theory
    Author(s): Toshiro Takabatake, Koichiro Suekuni, Tsuneyoshi Nakayama, and Eiji KaneshitaType-I clathrate compounds have attracted a great deal of interest in connection with the search for efficient t …
  • Insect flight dynamics: Stability and control
    Author(s): Mao SunInsects can hover, fly forward, climb, and descend with ease while demonstrating amazing stability, and they can also maneuver in impressive ways as no other organisms can. Is their …
  • Real-space renormalization in statistical mechanics
    Author(s): Efi Efrati, Zhe Wang, Amy Kolan, and Leo P. KadanoffThis review compares the conceptualization and practice of early real-space renormalization group methods with the conceptualization of m …
  • Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets
    Author(s): Vivien Zapf, Marcelo Jaime, and C. D. BatistaThis article reviews experimental and theoretical work on Bose-Einstein condensation in quantum magnets. These magnets are natural realizations …
  • Crystalline color superconductors
    Author(s): Roberto Anglani, Roberto Casalbuoni, Marco Ciminale, Nicola Ippolito, Raoul Gatto, Massimo Mannarelli, and Marco RuggieriInhomogeneous superconductors and inhomogeneous superfluids appear i …
  • Standard model Higgs boson searches through the 125 GeV boson discovery
    Author(s): Gregorio Bernardi and Matthew HerndonThe experimental searches for the standard model Higgs boson are reviewed from the 2 TeV run of the Tevatron with ≃10  fb−1 of recorded data, and from t …
  • Bell nonlocality
    Author(s): Nicolas Brunner, Daniel Cavalcanti, Stefano Pironio, Valerio Scarani, and Stephanie WehnerBell’s 1964 theorem, which states that the predictions of quantum theory cannot be accounted for by …
  • 1/f
    Author(s): E. Paladino, Y. M. Galperin, G. Falci, and B. L. AltshulerThe efficiency of the future devices for quantum information processing is limited mostly by the finite decoherence rates of the in …
  • First-principles calculations for point defects in solids
    Author(s): Christoph Freysoldt, Blazej Grabowski, Tilmann Hickel, Jörg Neugebauer, Georg Kresse, Anderson Janotti, and Chris G. Van de WallePoint defects and impurities strongly affect the physical pr …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Justin Dressel, Mehul Malik, Filippo M. Miatto, Andrew N. Jordan, and Robert W. BoydSince its introduction 25 years ago, the quantum weak value has gradually transitioned from a theoretical …
  • Recent developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions
    Author(s): B. B. Back, H. Esbensen, C. L. Jiang, and K. E. RehmIn this review the main advances in heavy-ion fusion research that have taken place over the last decade are addressed. During this perio …
  • Dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors: Physics and spintronic structures
    Author(s): Tomasz Dietl and Hideo OhnoThis review compiles results of experimental and theoretical studies on thin films and quantum structures of semiconductors with randomly distributed Mn ions, whi …
  • Quantum simulation
    Author(s): I. M. Georgescu, S. Ashhab, and Franco NoriSimulating quantum mechanics is known to be a difficult computational problem, especially when dealing with large systems. However, this difficult …
  • Gravitational radiation detection with laser interferometry
    Author(s): Rana X. AdhikariGravitational-wave detection has been pursued relentlessly for over 40 years. With the imminent operation of a new generation of laser interferometers, it is expected that d …
  • Galaxy masses
    Author(s): Stéphane Courteau, Michele Cappellari, Roelof S. de Jong, Aaron A. Dutton, Eric Emsellem, Henk Hoekstra, L. V. E. Koopmans, Gary A. Mamon, Claudia Maraston, Tommaso Treu, and Lawrence M. Wi …
  • Secular evolution in disk galaxies
    Author(s): J. A. SellwoodDisk galaxies evolve over time through processes that may rearrange both the radial mass profile and the metallicity distribution within the disk. This review of such slow cha …
  • Quantum-Bayesian coherence
    Author(s): Christopher A. Fuchs and Rüdiger SchackIn the quantum-Bayesian interpretation of quantum theory (or QBism), the Born rule cannot be interpreted as a rule for setting measurement-outcome pro …
  • Fermi gases in one dimension: From Bethe ansatz to experiments
    Author(s): Xi-Wen Guan, Murray T. Batchelor, and Chaohong LeeThis article reviews theoretical and experimental developments for one-dimensional Fermi gases. Specifically, the experimentally realized t …
  • Defect identification in semiconductors with positron annihilation: Experiment and theory
    Author(s): Filip Tuomisto and Ilja MakkonenPositron annihilation spectroscopy is particularly suitable for studying vacancy-type defects in semiconductors. Combining state-of-the-art experimental and …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Katherine Freese, Mariangela Lisanti, and Christopher SavageDirect detection experiments, which are designed to detect the scattering of dark matter off nuclei in detectors, are a critical …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Andrei N. Andreyev, Mark Huyse, and Piet Van DuppenThis Colloquium reviews the studies of exotic type of low-energy nuclear fission, the β-delayed fission (βDF). Emphasis is made on the new …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Z.-T. Lu, P. Mueller, G. W. F. Drake, W. Nörtershäuser, Steven C. Pieper, and Z.-C. YanThe neutron-rich He6 and He8 isotopes exhibit an exotic nuclear structure that consists of a tightly b …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Shin’ichiro Ando et al.Many of the astrophysical sources and violent phenomena observed in our Universe are potential emitters of gravitational waves and high-energy cosmic radiation, inclu …
  • Single-electron current sources: Toward a refined definition of the ampere
    Author(s): Jukka P. Pekola, Olli-Pentti Saira, Ville F. Maisi, Antti Kemppinen, Mikko Möttönen, Yuri A. Pashkin, and Dmitri V. AverinThe control of electrons at the level of the elementary charge e wa …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Cristiano Nisoli, Roderich Moessner, and Peter SchifferFrustration, the presence of competing interactions, is ubiquitous in the physical sciences and is a source of degeneracy and disorder …
  • Life at the interface of particle physics and string theory
    Author(s): A. N. SchellekensIf the results of the first LHC run are not betraying us, many decades of particle physics are culminating in a complete and consistent theory for all nongravitational phys …
  • Physics of adherent cells
    Author(s): Ulrich S. Schwarz and Samuel A. SafranOne of the most unique physical features of cell adhesion to external surfaces is the active generation of mechanical force at the cell-material interf …
  • Thermal conduction phenomena in carbon nanotubes and related nanostructured materials
    Author(s): Amy M. Marconnet, Matthew A. Panzer, and Kenneth E. GoodsonThe extremely high thermal conductivities of carbon nanotubes have motivated a wealth of research. Progress includes innovative co …
  • White organic light-emitting diodes: Status and perspective
    Author(s): Sebastian Reineke, Michael Thomschke, Björn Lüssem, and Karl LeoWhite organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ultrathin, large-area light sources made from organic semiconductor materials …
  • Spinor Bose gases: Symmetries, magnetism, and quantum dynamics
    Author(s): Dan M. Stamper-Kurn and Masahito UedaSpinor Bose gases form a family of quantum fluids manifesting both magnetic order and superfluidity. This article reviews experimental and theoretical p …
  • Hydrodynamics of soft active matter
    Author(s): M. C. Marchetti, J. F. Joanny, S. Ramaswamy, T. B. Liverpool, J. Prost, Madan Rao, and R. Aditi SimhaThis review summarizes theoretical progress in the field of active matter, placing it in …
  • Principles of maximum entropy and maximum caliber in statistical physics
    Author(s): Steve Pressé, Kingshuk Ghosh, Julian Lee, and Ken A. DillThe variational principles called maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and maximum caliber (MaxCal) are reviewed. MaxEnt originated in the stati …
  • The molecular universe
    Author(s): A. G. G. M. TielensMolecular absorption and emission bands dominate the visible, infrared, and submillimeter spectra of most objects with associated gas. These observations reveal a surpris …
  • Nobel Lecture: Controlling photons in a box and exploring the quantum to classical boundary
    Author(s): Serge HarocheMicrowave photons trapped in a superconducting cavity constitute an ideal system to realize some of the thought experiments imagined by the founding fathers of quantum physics. …
  • Nobel Lecture: Superposition, entanglement, and raising Schrödinger’s cat
    Author(s): David J. Wineland[Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 1103] Published Fri Jul 12, 2013
  • Silicon quantum electronics
    Author(s): Floris A. Zwanenburg, Andrew S. Dzurak, Andrea Morello, Michelle Y. Simmons, Lloyd C. L. Hollenberg, Gerhard Klimeck, Sven Rogge, Susan N. Coppersmith, and Mark A. ErikssonThis review descr …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Mario Einax, Wolfgang Dieterich, and Philipp MaassUnderstanding and control of cluster and thin-film growth on solid surfaces is a subject of intensive research to develop nanomaterials wit …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, A. Ron, and N. DavidsonCoherent diffusion pertains to the motion of atomic dipoles experiencing frequent collisions in vapor while maintaining their coherence. Re …
  • Erratum: Hidden variables and the two theorems of John Bell [Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 803 (1993)]
    Author(s): N. David Mermin[Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 919] Published Fri Jun 28, 2013
  • Leaking chaotic systems
    Author(s): Eduardo G. Altmann, Jefferson S. E. Portela, and Tamás TélThere are numerous physical situations in which a hole or leak is introduced in an otherwise closed chaotic system. The leak can ha …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Elbio DagottoThe iron-based superconductors that contain FeAs layers as the fundamental building block in the crystal structures have been rationalized in the past using ideas based on the …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Tobias Hurth and Farvah MahmoudiA status report on quark flavor physics in view of the latest data from the B factories and the LHC is given, and the impact of the latest experimental resul …
  • Pregalactic metal enrichment: The chemical signatures of the first stars
    Author(s): Torgny Karlsson, Volker Bromm, and Joss Bland-HawthornThe emergence of the first sources of light at redshifts of z∼10–30 signaled the transition from the simple initial state of the Univer …
  • Ion acceleration by superintense laser-plasma interaction
    Author(s): Andrea Macchi, Marco Borghesi, and Matteo PassoniIon acceleration driven by superintense laser pulses is attracting an impressive and steadily increasing effort. Motivations can be found in …
  • Theory and application of explicitly correlated Gaussians
    Author(s): Jim Mitroy, Sergiy Bubin, Wataru Horiuchi, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Ludwik Adamowicz, Wojciech Cencek, Krzysztof Szalewicz, Jacek Komasa, D. Blume, and Kálmán VargaThe variational method complement …
  • The spin structure of the nucleon
    Author(s): Christine A. Aidala, Steven D. Bass, Delia Hasch, and Gerhard K. MallotThis article reviews our present understanding of QCD spin physics: the proton spin puzzle and new developments aimed …
  • Hybrid quantum circuits: Superconducting circuits interacting with other quantum systems
    Author(s): Ze-Liang Xiang, Sahel Ashhab, J. Q. You, and Franco NoriHybrid quantum circuits combine two or more physical systems, with the goal of harnessing the advantages and strengths of the differe …
  • Models of wave-function collapse, underlying theories, and experimental tests
    Author(s): Angelo Bassi, Kinjalk Lochan, Seema Satin, Tejinder P. Singh, and Hendrik UlbrichtQuantum mechanics is an extremely successful theory that agrees with every experimental test. However, the …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Andrea Vanossi, Nicola Manini, Michael Urbakh, Stefano Zapperi, and Erio TosattiThe physics of sliding friction is gaining impulse from nanoscale and mesoscale experiments, simulations, and …
  • Cold atoms in cavity-generated dynamical optical potentials
    Author(s): Helmut Ritsch, Peter Domokos, Ferdinand Brennecke, and Tilman EsslingerThis is a review of state-of-the-art theory and experiment of the motion of cold and ultracold atoms coupled to the ra …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Yukio Saito and Hiroyuki HyugaSubsequent to the discovery of chirality of organic molecules by Pasteur, living organisms have been found to utilize biomolecules of only one handedness. The …
  • Complex photonics: Dynamics and applications of delay-coupled semiconductors lasers
    Author(s): Miguel C. Soriano, Jordi García-Ojalvo, Claudio R. Mirasso, and Ingo FischerComplex phenomena in photonics, in particular, dynamical properties of semiconductor lasers due to delayed coupli …
  • Magnetic cluster excitations
    Author(s): Albert Furrer and Oliver WaldmannMagnetic clusters, i.e., assemblies of a finite number (between two or three and several hundred) of interacting spin centers which are magnetically decoupl …
  • Quantum fluids of light
    Author(s): Iacopo Carusotto and Cristiano CiutiThis article reviews recent theoretical and experimental advances in the fundamental understanding and active control of quantum fluids of light in nonli …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Adam BurrowsCore-collapse theory brings together many facets of high-energy and nuclear astrophysics and the numerical arts to present theorists with one of the most important, yet frustrat …
  • Radiative corrections in precision electroweak physics: A historical perspective
    Author(s): Alberto Sirlin and Andrea FerrogliaThe aim of this article is to review the important role played by radiative corrections in precision electroweak physics, in the framework of both the Fer …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): M. E. Zhitomirsky and A. L. ChernyshevA theoretical overview of the phenomenon of spontaneous magnon decays in quantum antiferromagnets is presented. The intrinsic zero-temperature damping …
  • Femtosecond x rays from laser-plasma accelerators
    Author(s): S. Corde, K. Ta Phuoc, G. Lambert, R. Fitour, V. Malka, A. Rousse, A. Beck, and E. LefebvreRelativistic interaction of short-pulse lasers with underdense plasmas has recently led to the eme …
  • Stochastic models of intracellular transport
    Author(s): Paul C. Bressloff and Jay M. NewbyThe interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to anal …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Hans-Werner Hammer, Andreas Nogga, and Achim SchwenkIt is often assumed that few- and many-body systems can be accurately described by considering only pairwise two-body interactions of the …
  • Neutral pion lifetime measurements and the QCD chiral anomaly
    Author(s): A. M. Bernstein and Barry R. HolsteinA fundamental property of QCD is the presence of the chiral anomaly, which is the dominant component of the π0→γγ decay rate. Based on this anomaly and …
  • Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation
    Author(s): Bernhard Urbaszek, Xavier Marie, Thierry Amand, Olivier Krebs, Paul Voisin, Patrick Maletinsky, Alexander Högele, and Atac ImamogluThe mesoscopic spin system formed by the 104–106 nuclear s …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Ioan Kosztin, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, and Gabor ForgacsTissue engineering is a rapidly evolving discipline that aims at building functional tissues to improve or replace damaged ones. To …
  • Steady-state tokamak research: Core physics
    Author(s): M. Kikuchi and M. AzumiTokamaks have demonstrated excellent plasma confinement capability because of their symmetry but has an intrinsic drawback because of their pulsed inductive operation …
  • Colloquium
    Author(s): Francesco De Martini and Fabio SciarrinoThis work reports on an extended research endeavor focused on the theoretical and experimental realization of a macroscopic quantum superposition (MQ …